Whole Grains and Refined Grains
Whole grains use all three parts of the grain kernel: germ, bran and endosperm. Refined grains are missing their germ and bran layers, because they have been milled, leaving only the endosperm –- the starchy carbohydrate inside the bran husk. The bran is the outer protective layer of the grain kernels, and it has fiber, antioxidants, and B vitamins. The germ is the smallest part of each kernel, loaded with B vitamins, healthy fats, minerals, and a bit of protein.
Seeing the Difference In Whole and Refined Rice Grains
One easy way to visualize the difference between whole and refined grains is to look at brown rice and white rice. Before milling, these grains were both brown, containing all three layers of the natural kernel. After milling, the white rice, while it may look nicer and cook faster, is missing the most beneficial layers of the grain's kernel.
Despite Small Package, Grains Pack a Powerful Punch for Health
Whole grains are fully loaded with many plant compounds that can protect your cells from the kind of damage that may lead to the development of cancer. Enriched refined grains may have these benefits mixed back in to the finished food product, but fiber is not always part of that enrichment –- so read your food labels carefully. Whole grains have many natural compounds that have been shown to lower your cancer risk, and these are dietary fiber, antioxidants, phenols, lignans, and saponins.
- Dietary Fiber: Whole grains are a good source of dietary fiber, that helps reduce constipation and other digestive problems, while helping you feel satisfied after a meal, and avoid overeating.
- Antioxidants: These are compounds that prevent or minimize cell oxidation damage caused by free radicals. Antioxidants can help promote good health for your heart, brain, and eyes, by slowing the natural aging process.
- Phenols: These are aromatic compounds that occur in essential oils. The benefits start with the great fragrance, but phenols also have powerful antiseptic and antibacterial properties. These fragrant compounds can act as stimulants for your nervous and immune systems.
- Lignans: Whole grains are a good source of lignans, a plant-based estrogen. Lignans may act similar to weak estrogens, sliding into estrogen receptors on cells in breast and endometrial tissues. This action may protect cells that could become damaged or cancerous when in contact with female estrogens.
- Saponins: These are water and fat-soluble plant compounds that function as natural antibiotics. Saponins can help lower your cholesterol, fight infections, and may help your body protect itself from cancer.
It's easy to add whole grains and their health benefits to your daily diet. Leave white bread on the shelf, and select whole grain breads instead. Skip the white rice and enjoy slow-simmered brown rice instead. Make a good-sized batch of brown rice, and save time by reheating leftover portions in your microwave or steamer. When making soup, add brown rice, wild rice, or barley to enhance its flavor and fiber value. If you like salads, try tabouli, which uses bulgur wheat, a tasty and filling whole grain. Try having whole-grain cereals at breakfast, or a bowl of hot rolled oatmeal, instead of sugar-loaded corn flakes. And there's always popcorn, an entertaining whole grain that can be fun to cook as well as to eat.
Whole Grain Shopping Tips
In the table below, you'll see a list of whole and refined grains and products. This is not a complete list, but may help you get some idea of what to look for at the grocery store, when you are shopping for grain products. Remember to read food labels carefully, and distinguish between such phrases as "whole wheat" and "whole grain."
Identifying Whole and Refined Grains
|Whole Grains||Refined or Enriched Grains|
|brown and wild rice||white rice|
|wholewheat and buckwheat flour||white all-purpose flour|
|bulgur (cracked wheat)||couscous|
|whole wheat cereal flakes||corn flakes cereal|
|whole grain barley||-|
|whole grain cornmeal||cornmeal mix|
|whole wheat bread||white bread|
|whole wheat crackers||plain crackers|
|whole wheat pasta||standard pasta|
|whole wheat sandwich buns and rolls||white sandwich buns and rolls|
|whole wheat tortillas||flour and corn tortillas|
USDA MyPyramid.gov. Inside the Pyramid - Grains. Last updated: October 8, 2008.
American Institute for Cancer Research. Foods That Fight Cancer. Whole Grains.